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Monday, 4 August 2014

Metaphors We Invest By

Lost for Words

Metaphor is a powerful engine for driving thought. Or possibly it's a useful compass for guiding it. Or perhaps it's some other metaphor. The point is the we tend to think in metaphors, even about metaphor, and it seems that the metaphors we use to describe a situation  determine how we view it and what we do about it.

So companies may be in a tail-spin, or simply marking time. Or perhaps they're in terminal decline, or maybe it's merely a temporary setback. And maybe we're talking about the same thing, and how you hear it described determines your reactions to it ... metaphor is powerful, acts on us unconsciously and is almost completely useless to an intelligent investor.

Monday, 28 July 2014

Bad Behavior: From A to Z ... and Back Again

Talking Shop

A common reaction to pointing out to investors (or indeed, anyone) that they're as biased as a Fox reporter at a convention of transgender liberal pacifists is for them to respond, not unreasonably, by asking what they should do about it (that's the investors, not the reporters). It turns out that it's a lot easier to say what's wrong than to actually do anything about it.

The A to Z of Behavioral Bias is an attempt to address that issue, but it does rather show that there's no such thing as a common source of biases; bad behavior comes from many sources and requires many solutions. Or does it?

Friday, 25 July 2014

Z is for Zero Risk Bias

Zero-risk bias is a preference for options that completely eliminate some risk even where alternative, often cheaper, options will reduce the overall risk by more, proportionately.We often prefer the absolute certainty of a smaller benefit to a larger benefit of less certainty.

Thursday, 24 July 2014

Y is for Yawn Effect

The Yawn Effect occurs when you yawn in response to someone else yawning. In fact you can even get your dog to do it (or get coerced into yawning by your pooch). Yawning is contagious, and contagion is an inevitable unconscious consequence of people interacting with each other - and, as usual, when we behave automatically as investors it doesn't make for a good financial outcome.

Wednesday, 23 July 2014

X is for Xenophobia

OK, Xenophobia isn't really a behavioral bias, but Home Bias is its equivalent - the tendency of investors to favor their home markets over foreign ones and to damage their returns, or at least increase their risks, in the process.

Monday, 21 July 2014

Mistrust the Financial Storytellers

Homo narratus

Homo sapiens is the storytelling ape. We make sense of the things that happen in the world, of the things that happen to us, and even of ourselves, through stories and narratives. Consciousness is perhaps best defined as the stories we tell of ourselves as coherent individuals passing through time.

So it's not surprising that we're inclined to favor people who tell stories over those who crunch data. Words are human, numbers - somehow - are not. But the real stories lie in the numbers and, in investment, people who tell stories without the numbers are mystics and shamans, or worse.

Friday, 18 July 2014

W is for Winner's Curse

The Winner's Curse occurs when in order to win a competitive pricing situation such as an auction we overpay. By overpaying we destroy the investment case for buying in the first place and the losers turn out to be the winners. Of course, overpaying for anything is unfortunate, but competition has strange effects on our brains.

Thursday, 17 July 2014

V is for Von Restorff Effect

The Von Restorff Effect states that something that stands out is more likely to be remembered. So a highlighted item on a list is more likely to be recalled than the remainder of the list items. The effect demonstrates the unreliability of memory, which isn't any kind of photographic process but is a more complicated affair, generated on the fly from bits and pieces of information we can bring to mind.

Wednesday, 16 July 2014

U is for Uncertainty

Uncertainty is the reality of the unknown unknowns. We don't know what we don't know: we can't even measure it. And we don't like it, not at all. In fact we don't like it so much we're prepared to ignore it, which is unfortunate as it's an 800 pound gorilla sitting in the corner. Painted blue, wearing a tutu and playing a bassoon.

We really hate uncertainty.

Tuesday, 15 July 2014

T is for Texas Sharpshooter Effect

The Texas Sharpshooter Effect is a doozy, although it's less of a bias and more a sleight of hand trick. Impressed by that fantastic mutual fund history? Amazed by that stock tipping sheet performance? Dumbfounded by that guru's record of predicting market movements? Roll up, roll up and see the Texan Sharpshooter in action ...